Local communities: first and last providers of protection

FMR 53
October 2016

It is often people’s immediate community that provides the first, last and perhaps best tactical response for many people affected by or under threat of displacement. In the 23 feature theme articles in this issue of FMR, authors from around the world – including authors who are themselves displaced – explore the capacity of communities to organise themselves before, during and after displacement in ways that help protect the community.

FMR 53 also includes eight ‘general’ articles on other aspects of forced migration.

Contents

Nils Carstensen

Supporting locally led protection strategies can significantly improve the impact of protection interventions. External actors first need to acknowledge the capacity of people at risk as independent actors themselves.

Simon Russell

The growing criticism of protection actors for neglecting indigenous coping strategies and capacities should prompt a radical, creative re-think of attitudes and approaches.

Nagwa Musa Konda, Leila Karim Tima Kodi and Nils Carstensen

In parts of Sudan, local NGOs and women’s groups have taken the lead in their own protection, and their considerable achievements have helped change the status of women in their communities.

Jennifer S Rosenberg

Nearly 60% of all refugees now live in cities, a trend that will continue as camps increasingly become an option of last resort. Already, this urban shift is catalysing monumental changes across the sector, including in how humanitarians think about, and embark upon, community-based protection.

Eugenie Mukandayisenga

As Rwandan refugees in Kampala, I and others like me are uniquely placed to help newly arrived refugees find their feet in the city. The work is demanding but vital.

Saeed Rahman, Simran Chaudhri, Lindsay Stark and Mark Canavera

Continuing dependence on aid that waxes and wanes with time and that comes largely from external sources can lead to feelings of powerlessness. It can furthermore undermine family- and community-based initiatives to protect children.

Margee Ensign

Collaborative, creative initiatives in Nigeria helped protect local communities from much of the impact of Boko Haram violence. When international agencies arrived, however, they ignored these efforts.

Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

Acknowledging the widespread reality of ‘overlapping’ displacement provides an entry point to recognising and engaging with the agency of refugees and their diverse hosts in providing support and welcome to displaced people.

Denise Dunovant

In the absence of international or state assistance and protection, community members in northern Uganda stepped in to fill this vacuum both during displacement and throughout the laborious return process following the conflict’s end.

Jessica A Lenz

Local communities will continue to find ways to address the risks that confront them with or without humanitarian support but the international community may be able to enhance these solutions.

Emese Kantor

A grassroots women’s organisation in Colombia is working to protect women and girls from sexual and gender-based violence, and to support the healing of survivors.

Angela Cotroneo and Marta Pawlak

The ICRC tries to ensure that its activities on behalf of IDPs and those at risk of displacement support, rather than undermine, communities’ and individuals’ self-protection mechanisms and coping strategies.

Jonathan Alejandro Murcia and James Gilberto Granada Vahos

Collective action by displaced people in Medellín has been both diverse and strategic.

Richard Nunn

Oxfam’s work with local communities in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has prompted the organisation to develop guidance for themselves and for others working in similar situations.

Janosch Kullenberg

Community Liaison Assistants may be UN peacekeeping’s most effective instrument for community engagement, with the potential to play a critical role in the protection of civilians. However, their effectiveness is curtailed by the lack of a comprehensive vision, hesitant military responses and cumbersome administrative structures.

Linda Bartolomei, Mari Hamidi, Nima Mohamed Mohamud and Kristy Ward

Recognising that process is as important as outcomes, a community development approach can be effective in supporting local communities as providers of first resort. A project run by the Somali and Afghan refugee communities in India shows how this can work.

Hanno Brankamp

Community policing has become a popular way of promoting local ownership of security in refugee camps in Kenya and more widely, but it can also fall victim to its ambivalent position at the intersection of refugee communities and state policing.

Nicolas Martin-Achard and Al Ghaith Association

Community centres play an important role in offering protection for displaced communities, particularly for members of those communities who have specific needs. Somali refugees in Yemen formed the Al Ghaith Association and are now running their own community centres to support fellow refugees. Below, UNHCR and Al Ghaith discuss their approaches.

Mohammed Al-Sabahi and Fausto Aarya De Santis

Community power structures and attitudes in Yemen are key factors in how IDPs can gain protection and assistance.

Richard Mallett and Jessica Hagen-Zanker

For Eritreans and Syrians coming to Europe, community networks both encourage the initial decision to go and provide elements of support along the way.

Andrea Verdeja

Addressing protection as a key element of community-based disaster risk reduction and preparedness efforts is essential to safeguarding human rights in disaster and emergency settings.

Khalid Koser and Amy Cunningham

An initiative to help local communities build resilience against violent extremism may offer useful lessons in how to help local communities access funding to support their self-protection efforts.

Casey Barrs

All too often, violence proves to be beyond influence, forcing international aid agencies to pull back and leave local civilians to face the danger alone. External actors need a far deeper understanding of local communities’ experience of and strategies for self-protection, and a far greater commitment to support those communities.

General articles

Megan Denise Smith

Currently the instruments of refugee status determination make asylum claims depend on images of women that are characterised by victimisation and motherhood.

Jeisson Oswaldo Martínez Leguízamo

If, as seems likely, Colombia reaches a peace agreement to end its long internal conflict, the settlement may create the political and legal conditions to solve the phenomenon of forced migration of its citizens.

Katalin Berényi

The European Union needs to issue a Directive on common standards for statelessness determination procedures with a view to mitigating the particular impacts of statelessness in the context of the continuing refugee crisis in Europe.

John van Kooy

The ‘Stepping Stones to Small Business’ programme in Australia is appreciated by participants but has shown that entrepreneurship’ is a problematic concept in the context of women from refugee backgrounds.

Nikhil A Patel, Amos B Licthman, Mohit M Nair and Parveen K Parmar

Participants in a field-research methods course on refugee health at the Thai-Burma border learned that beyond the biological vectors and disease processes that contribute to human suffering, power, politics and privilege play central roles in negatively affecting refugee health.

Liliana Lyra Jubilut, Camila Sombra Muiños de Andrade and André de Lima Madureira

Brazil’s humanitarian visas are an important tool in complementary protection, offering legal pathways for forced migrants to reach a safer country. However, they have shortcomings that need to be addressed in order for the practice to serve as a model for an enhanced instrument of protection for humanitarian migrants elsewhere.

Danielle Robinson

Traditional humanitarian actors should develop mechanisms to support innovation by displaced people. Two cases of technological innovation developed by Syrian refugees illustrate the point.

Mamokgadi Gloria Victoria Koneshe

Over recent years South Africa has accepted many refugees and asylum seekers, among whom are women requiring maternity services. Because the values and cultural practices of immigrant pregnant women sometimes differ from those of the midwife, their rights to good treatment may be violated.

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