People trafficking

upholding rights and understanding vulnerabilities
FMR 25
May 2006

This issue debates the impact of human trafficking on women, children and men whose human rights have been violated by this criminal practice, and presents case studies of countries and approaches.

The production and distribution costs of this issue have been supported by grants from the Global Alliance Against Traffic on Women (GAATW), the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs and the UN Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (UNIAP).

The issue also includes a range of articles on other aspects of forced migration.

Contents

Bandana Pattanaik

Many organisations, politicians and celebrities have joined the fight against human trafficking but have they stopped to consider the causes of the phenomenon and the human rights of those affected by it and/or by ill-judged actions to suppress it?

Jacqueline Bhabha and Monette Zard

The UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TNC) and its two Protocols on Trafficking and Smuggling, adopted in 2000, seek to distinguish between trafficking and smuggling. In reality these distinctions are often blurred. A more nuanced approach is needed to ensure protection for all those at risk.

Aleya Hammad

While the prime responsibility for eliminating human trafficking rests with governments, a successful global strategy requires engagement of a wide range of stakeholders, including NGOs, the security sector, the public – and the business community. 

Richard Danziger

There needs to be a common understanding of who the victims of trafficking are. Only then can the international community hope to improve its record in identification and protection of such individuals.

Susan Martin

Trafficking of people within countries has been relatively neglected. Should those who are internally trafficked be regarded as IDPs?

Elzbieta Gozdziak, Micah Bump, Julianne Duncan, Margaret MacDonnell and Mindy B Loiselle

In order to address the particular needs of child survivors of trafficking, much more needs to be known about their background, experiences and hopes.

Faisal Yousaf

In South Asia civil society organisations have led the way in encouraging governments to address the problem of human trafficking. A coordinated regional response by both governments and civil society organisations is urgently required.

Bandana Pattanaik

Amidst the hype of globalisation-driven South Asian prosperity, the plight of the landless, illiterate and chronically poor remains forgotten. Among the most vulnerable losers are those who migrate in search of better livelihoods.

Susu Thatun

In October 2004 six countries - Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar/Burma, Thailand and Vietnam – joined hands in the battle against human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS).

Shiva K Dhungana

Agencies working to combat trafficking in Nepal need to develop a more coherent and collaborative strategy.

Malika Floor

An estimated 100-500,000 persons are trafficked annually into Europe. Trafficking into, out of or within Europe is done overwhelmingly for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

Sebastian Rauber

Switzerland is committed to combating and preventing trafficking in human beings. Effective policy implementation in a federal structure depends on networking, effective information exchange and development of robust cooperation mechanisms.

Eline Willemsen

The Dutch focus on the expulsion of undocumented migrants hinders the protection of victims of trafficking.

Saori Terada and Paul de Guchteneire

In southern Africa, trafficking of persons is a sensitive topic, frequently associated with irregular migration, prostitution or child labour. It is often approached in an ideological way without tackling its roots.

Victoria Ijeoma Nwogu

Readmission agreements between Nigeria and migrant destination countries fail to comply with international standards for the protection of migrants’ and trafficked persons’ rights.

Luciana Campello R Almeida, Luiza Helena Leite and Frans Nederstigt

More than a hundred years after slavery was formally abolished in Brazil, a modern-day version thrives.

Bibiana Ferraiuoli Suárez

The foundation set up by Puerto Rican superstar, Ricky Martin, is working to raise awareness on ways to prevent child trafficking and to assist its victims.

Sigma Huda

The UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights Aspects of the Victims of Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, recently visited Lebanon.  Unlike many Arab states Lebanon has ratified the Palermo Protocol and has a vibrant civil society increasingly concerned about trafficking in persons.

Marina de Regt

Few know about the large numbers of Ethiopian women who migrate to the Middle East to take up domestic work.

Beth Herzfeld, Sarah Green, Sarah Epstein and Christine Beddoe

Leading UK agencies have urged the UK government to do more to protect the victims of trafficking.

Wendy Young and Diana Quick

While the full extent of trafficking to the UK is not known, combating it has become a national priority in order to protect the victims, prosecute traffickers and raise public awareness to prevent it happening. Policymakers must realise that trafficking cannot be addressed through the lens of migration control.

Bob Burgoyne and Claire Darwin

Analysis of court cases shows how hard it is for victims of trafficking to win the right to remain in the UK. 

General articles

Sarah Maguire and Maarten G Barends

Rule of law programmes usually take place after conflicts have ended. However, UNDP is pioneering a major initiative amidst ongoing conflict in Darfur.

Larry Minear

How has the international community acquitted itself since the beginnings of orchestrated violence in Darfur in early 2003? Why did it take so long to gear up and why were humanitarians so unequal to the challenges posed by the crisis?

Tamara Fetters

Given the prevalence of sexual and gender-based violence in Darfur, why are safe abortion services and treatment of complications resulting from unsafe abortions or miscarriages not provided at all refugee/IDP health facilities?

Graham Wood and Jake Phelan

Western Equatoria is a focal point for Sudanese refugees returning from neighbouring Uganda, the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arriving with very little, they inevitably compound the poverty of their hosts. Without greater sensitivity, aid could exacerbate deep divisions.

Tim Morris

Khartoum’s refusal to allow Jan Egeland, the UN Emergency Relief Coordinator, to visit Darfur – and the expulsion of the Norwegian Refugee Council from the troubled region – is further evidence of efforts by the ruling National Congress Party (NCP) to contain international engagement in Sudan.

Scott Leckie

The UN’s Pinheiro Principles represent the first consolidated global standard on the housing, land and property restitution rights of displaced people.

Simon Horner

DG ECHO, the European Commission’s humanitarian aid department, pays special attention to helping the victims of ignored crises which often involve displaced populations living in exile for years or even decades.

José Copete

Traditional diplomacy has failed to resolve the Western Sahara conflict. Is it time to adopt a multi-track approach to Africa’s last decolonialisation dispute?

Gina Crivello, Elena Fiddian and Dawn Chatty

Thousands of young Sahrawis spend summer holidays with Spanish families. The Vacaciones en Paz hosting programme has grown into a transnational network which allows Sahrawi youth to partially offset the hardships of their daily lives as refugees.

Kate Romer

Are governments in the Asia-Pacific region doing enough to support those at risk of displacement from climate change? Should they be regarded as refugees?

Chiara Martini

The right to seek and enjoy asylum from persecution is under serious threat in the European Union. Fortifying Europe against asylum seekers risks encouraging the illegal labour market and trafficking in human beings.

Nicole Hallett, Maria Beatrice Noguiera, Jessica Bryan and Gemma Bowles

Changes to UK asylum laws have left many asylum seekers without the legal representation they need.

Ana Low

UNHCR supports local integration as one possible solution for refugees who cannot return home. Experience in Mexico, Uganda and Zambia indicates that integration can benefit refugee-hosting communities as well as refugees.

Jacqueline Papo

UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?

Eva-Lotta E Hedman

Political changes are underway in Aceh but only a small fraction of those displaced by the December 2004 tsunami or by earlier conflict with insurgents have returned home.

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