Climate crisis and local communities / Trafficking and smuggling / COVID-19: early reflections

FMR 64

FMR issue 64 includes two main feature themes, one on Climate crisis and local communities and one on Trafficking and smuggling, plus a ‘mini-feature’ on early reflections on COVID-19 in the context of displacement.

Contents
Fouda Ndikintum and Mohamed Ag Malha

Malian refugees in Mbera, Mauritania, have brought with them the skills and experience they gained in managing the effects of climate change in their home country, and are learning new skills in exile. Both refugee and host communities are benefiting.

Matthew Porges

Sahrawi refugee-nomads are finding ways to tackle the interconnected climate-related challenges that they face. Their responses show the importance of flexible, refugee-driven initiatives.

Ekai Nabenyo

As the impacts of climate change grow more severe, Turkana nomadic-pastoralists are increasingly being forced to move, rather than choosing to move. Their voices must be heard at the local and international level, and their knowledge and insights must inform policymaking. 

Pablo Cortés Ferrández

The 2015–17 drought in the Horn of Africa displaced more than 300,000 pastoralists in the eastern part of the Somali region of Ethiopia. Many who lost their livestock have instead engaged in grassroots action to improve livelihoods recovery and to build resilience.  

Shaberi Das and Sugata Hazra

When local communities face the brunt of the impacts of climate change, how able are they to make choices in their response? And whose responsibility is it to provide support?

Laura Geiger

Civil society networks with experience, knowledge and passion are fighting climate injustice and promoting the rights of those displaced by the impacts of climate change.

Simon Schoening

Rural communities in western Mongolia are increasingly abandoning their traditional livelihood systems. Strengthening the rural economy may lessen the need to migrate to urban areas but must take into account the long-term impacts of climate change.  

Amy Croome and Muna Hussein

Various factors intersect when looking at the gendered effects of climate crisis on local communities in Somalia/Somaliland.

Sarah Pentlow

Across the Greater Mekong subregion, Indigenous Peoples are employing a range of strategies to respond to the effects of climate change and climate-related displacement.

Fanny Thornton, Karen McNamara, Olivia Dun, Carol Farbotko, Celia McMichael, Merewalesi Yee, Sabira Coelho, Tim Westbury, Sharon James and Frances Namoumou

Types of mobility in the Pacific Islands are numerous and diverse. Case-studies from the region offer insights into the actions and agency of people, households and communities in the face of accelerating climate vulnerability.

Giovanna Gini, Tatiana Mendonça Cardoso and Erika Pires Ramos

A collaboration between community members and researchers examines how a traditional coastal community in Brazil overcame environmental and legal challenges to manage their own relocation.

Joshua Youle and Abigail Long

Current guidelines for measuring the prevalence of trafficking are inadequate. Improving the accuracy of trafficking estimates will require comprehensive, standardised guidelines which have been rigorously tested in the field.

Jennifer McQuaid

Those providing assistance to survivors of trafficking should focus not only on the delivery of services but also on building survivors’ capacity to engage in treatment and support.

Borislav Gerasimov

Efforts to combat trafficking in the sex industry must respect sex workers’ decisions and agency, and recognise them and their organisations as legitimate stakeholders in the anti-trafficking movement.

Lucia Della Torre, Adriana Romer and Margarite Zoeteweij

The inadequacy of Italy’s reception conditions for vulnerable asylum seekers raises serious questions about the legitimacy of Dublin transfers of those who have been trafficked.

Ana Dols García

The influence of traditional beliefs in the trafficking of Nigerian women for sexual exploitation must be better understood in order to help identify and protect victims and to properly inform judicial processes.

Henry Wu

Criminal prosecutions of trafficking offences are limited in scope. Civil litigation may provide an avenue for justice and accountability within a victim-centred, trauma-informed framework.

Craig Damian Smith

The assertion of a causal relationship between trafficking and terror financing is called into question by poor evidence and weak data, and its troubling policy implications.

Christa Foster Crawford and Ashley Kafton

Examples from Southeast Asia show both the promise and the pitfalls of emerging technologies and platforms that are being used to tackle forms of exploitation.

Mimi Vu and Nadia Sebtaoui

Vietnamese migration to Europe is a complex, fluid phenomenon where a course of action that begins as smuggling can also involve trafficking and other forms of exploitation.

Eduardo Torre Cantalapiedra

The treatment of the migrant and asylum seeker caravans travelling through Mexico shows the negative consequences that the fight against people smuggling has had for those making these journeys and their defenders.

Colleen Moser

The criminalisation of human smuggling in Niger has had a range of negative effects on migrants and asylum seekers, as well as on their former smugglers and host communities. Alternative avenues must be pursued.

Charles Simpson

Across the world, restrictive border security policies are being pursued in an attempt to tackle smuggling yet there is relatively little discussion of the evidence around what actually happens when these policies are enacted.

Additional Articles

The formal structures of humanitarian aid are struggling to respond to the consequences of COVID-19. The work of refugee-led organisations is now more relevant than ever, and they need to be far better supported – both now and in the longer term.

Alexander Betts, Evan Easton-Calabria and Kate Pincock

The response to COVID-19 calls for meaningful and substantive refugee participation and leadership. 

Mustafa Alio, Shaza Alrihawi, James Milner, Anila Noor, Najeeba Wazefadost and Pascal Zigashane

A case-study from Uganda demonstrates that authorities cannot provide the services and assistance that refugees need if they do not have good data on the refugee population. The COVID-19 pandemic highlights this issue while exacerbating the challenges facing urban refugees.

Florence Lozet and Evan Easton-Calabria

The challenges of gathering data about displaced people and host communities are further complicated in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the need to assess the impact of the pandemic is also driving innovations in collection, methodology, analysis and the sharing of expertise.

Domenico Tabasso

 

Disclaimer
Opinions in FMR do not necessarily reflect the views of the Editors, the Refugee Studies Centre or the University of Oxford.
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