Claudio Deola, Syed Yasir Ahmad Khan, Antonio Torres, Emmett Kearney and Ryan Schweitzer

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions are key to good public health outcomes for forcibly displaced people. A collaborative ‘roadmap’ for better integration of WASH services in crisis response has recently been launched.

Gabrielle Low

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated new thinking as those working with forced migrants try to secure safe accommodation and access to basic services for asylum seekers and refugees despite the challenging context.

John Allen and Caroline Muturi

Efforts are under way in Uganda’s refugee settlements to transfer responsibility for water services from NGOs to the country’s utilities. The transition needs to be carefully managed if it is to succeed.

Edward G J Stevenson, Lucie Buffavand and Sarai M Keestra

A case-study from the Lower Omo Valley explores some of the challenges to water security for people who have been displaced within their own homelands.

Gibson Zulu

Two refugee women in Liberia are repairing handpumps in order to support others in their community.

Angela Yesenia Olaya Requene

Displaced Afro-descendant communities in Colombia have experienced significant marginalisation during the pandemic but have drawn on ancestral knowledge to try to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19.

Gabriel Cardona-Fox, Giovanna De Meneghi, Edoardo Occa and Andrea Atzori

A health intervention in a complex crisis, such as the one in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, can only succeed if the community is effectively engaged and actively participates in the response.

Raissa Azzalini and Oxfam team in Venezuela

A new tool to collect and track people’s perceptions in the context of COVID-19 is providing valuable information to help support communities during the pandemic, while enabling greater community engagement.

Claire Eldred, James Kahia, Lilian Kiapi, Bibi Lamond, Stacey Mearns, Laura Miller and Liz Walker

Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) is important for building a resilient health system – and critical during a pandemic. A multi-country assessment undertaken in late 2020 has highlighted significant shortcomings which need to be addressed.

Yasmine Zaki Abdelaziz, Gemma Arthurson, Haley West and Antonio Torres

In the face of COVID-19, adaptation, innovation and learning from experience have been key to responding adequately to the needs of displaced people

Vicki Mau and Nicole Hoagland

Recent research across a number of countries highlights significant disparities in access to basic public health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. States have a responsibility to learn from the current pandemic and address the barriers that exist.

Evelyn Avalos Cortez and Lorraine van Blerk

Older refugees are particularly at risk from COVID-19. WASH services are key to reducing disease transmission for this vulnerable group.

General Articles
Maja Janmyr

Many of the world’s top refugee-hosting countries have not acceded to the 1951 Refugee Convention and yet they engage with the international refugee regime in a number of ways. Not only are international refugee law norms being disseminated and adopted in these States but also non-signatory States often participate in the development of international refugee law by being present and active in global arenas for refugee protection.

Brian Barbour

Few Asian States have acceded to the Refugee Convention yet they may have laws, policies, practices or systems that can be of use in responding to refugees’ protection needs.

Özlem Gürakar Skribeland

Somewhere between party and non-party to the Refugee Convention, Turkey is a rather unique case from the perspective of refugee law and practice, with its protection regime fundamentally shaped by the Refugee Convention and the optional geographical limitation allowed under it.

Rachel Li, Isaac Shaffer and Lynette Nam

Hong Kong is often cited as a positive example of a non-signatory territory that has established a government-led refugee status determination mechanism. However, in the absence of a broader public or executive-led commitment, this mechanism falls far below international standards.

Martin Clutterbuck, Yara Hussein, Mazen Mansour and Monica Rispo

In the absence of a codified refugee rights framework in Jordan and Lebanon, legal actors must be creative in the development of strategies and approaches to ensure the protection of refugee rights in practice.

Georgia Cole

Non-signatory States are increasingly important as donors, and UNHCR has been targeting some of these new funding sources. With funding, however, come influence and challenges.

M Sanjeeb Hossain

Despite Bangladesh not having ratified the 1951 Refugee Convention, a number of recent court judgements indicate respect for elements of the Convention’s rulings.

Naiyana Thanawattho, Waritsara Rungthong and Emily Arnold-Fernández

A coalition of civil society actors has developed effective strategies for working alongside the Thai government to facilitate better policies for refugees.

JN Joniad

Refugee journalist JN Joniad has been living in Indonesia since 2013, unable to move on and yet unable to access his basic rights.

Additional Articles

This is the text from the back cover of this issue of FMR. It profiles the last book written by our RSC colleague Gil Loescher, who died in April 2020.


Opinions in FMR do not necessarily reflect the views of the Editors, the Refugee Studies Centre or the University of Oxford.
FMR is an Open Access publication. Users are free to read, download, copy, distribute, print or link to the full texts of articles published in FMR and on the FMR website, as long as the use is for non-commercial purposes and the author and FMR are attributed. Unless otherwise indicated, all articles published in FMR in print and online, and FMR itself, are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. Details at